如何成为一名成功的自由程序员

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概要:35%的美国劳动力都从事自由职业。它是为那些渴望更多自由,或者觉得为雇主工作限制了他们创造力的人设计的。本文是将编程爱好或热情转化为自由职业的“最佳实践”指南。 如何成为一名成功的自由程序员 How to Be A Successful F...

如何成为一名成功的自由程序员

How to Be A Successful Freelance Programmer

A career as a freelancer is the reality for 35% of the United States’ workforce. It is designed for people that desire more freedom, or feel working for an employer limits their ability to be creative.

35%的美国劳动力都从事自由职业。它是为那些渴望更多自由,或者觉得为雇主工作限制了他们创造力的人设计的。

Freelancing is a viable option for programmers interested in earning additional income while employed or starting a full-time business in the future. Both are viable options with a differentiation between active income (working) and passive income (not working to earn income).

对于有兴趣在未来就业或开始全职业务时,赚取额外收入的程序员来说,自由职业是一个可行的选择。两者都是可行的选择,区分在于主动收入(工作)和被动收入(不工作时收入)。

freelance

This article is a “best practices” guide to turn a programming hobby or passion into a freelance business.

本文是将编程爱好或热情转化为自由职业的“最佳实践”指南

The Benefits of Freelancing

自由职业者的好处

The flexibility of working from a coffee shop or at home is a convenience available to any freelancer, but programmers can find themselves with some unique advantages. I cover specific benefits below for freelance programmers.

任何自由职业者都可以灵活地在咖啡店或家中工作,但程序员可以发现自己具有一些独特的优势。我认为自由程序员有以下特定优势。

Abundance of Work

丰富的工作

One perk of being a freelance programmer is the abundance of work in the market. However, there is a shortage of programmers freelancing in the industry. As a result, this opens the door for managing a consistent volume of work.

自由职业程序员的一个好处是市场上有大量的工作。然而,这个行业缺少自由职业的程序员。因此,这为自由职业者提供了大量的工作机会。

A few examples of skills a developer needs to succeed include SQL, Java, and JavaScript. Now is a prime time for programmers to get involved in freelancing so they can fulfill the needs of individual clients on a one-time or contract basis.

开发人员需要成功的一些技能示例,包括SQL,C#和JavaScript。现在是程序员参与自由职业的黄金时间,这样他们就可以在一次性或合同的基础上满足个人客户的需求。

Continuous Training

持续培训

Programmers have the freedom to choose certain types of new projects. Therefore, you can also teach yourself necessary skills in app development, JEE, or Python to take on more diverse jobs. As a result, you can increase earning potential by becoming a programmer performing high-quality, in-demand work.

程序员可以自由选择某些类型的新项目。因此,您还可以自学应用程序开发、JEE或Python方面的必要技能,以从事更多样化的工作。因此,您可以通过成为一名执行高质量、有需求的工作的程序员来增加收入潜力。

Freelance Programming Part-Time or Full-Time?

自由编程,兼职还是全职?

Can you be a full-time freelance programmer? Absolutely. Still, be aware that working alone requires self- discipline, effective marketing strategies, excellent customer service, and nurturing existing customers to keep them long-term.

你能做一个全职的自由程序员吗?当然。不过,要知道,单独工作需要自律、有效的营销策略、出色的客户服务,以及培养现有客户以使其长期存在。

Do you work another job? Don’t be discouraged. It’s common for freelancers to be employed while sustaining their own business. These professionals have families, maintain their households, and manage to grow their businesses with discipline.

你从事另一份工作吗?不要气馁。自由职业者在维持自己的业务的同时受雇是很常见的。这些专业人员拥有家庭,维持家庭,并设法通过有效的自律来发展业务。

I strongly recommend that you ask yourself this question before you decide to leave a full-time job. If successful, your services can be in-demand to the point where turning down clients is the norm as you work a full-time job. In contrast, growing the business can be the solution to career happiness.
我强烈建议你在决定离开一份全职工作之前问问自己这个问题。如果成功了,你的服务可能会很受欢迎,以至于当你全职工作时,拒绝客户是一种常态。相反,业务的发展可以是职业幸福的解决方案。
 

Do you have a family? Speak with your spouse and children about the reality of working from home.

你有一个家庭吗?与您的配偶和孩子谈谈在家工作的现实。

Here is a list of items to review before you leap into a full-time freelance business:

以下是在您进入全职自由职业者之前要审核的项目列表:

  • Set an ideal annual income to take care of personal and business expenses.设定理想的年收入以照顾个人和商业开支。
  • Avoid setting a timeline, because if the goal is not met, it can lead to disappointment.避免设置时间表,因为如果不满足目标,可能会导致失望。
  • Calculate the expenses and tax advantages of leasing an office space or working from home.计算租赁办公场所或在家工作的费用和税收优惠。

Whether the motivation is to earn an additional income or create a full-fledged business, you should consider the points above before taking the next step.

无论动机是为了赚取额外收入还是创造一个成熟的业务,您都应该在采取下一步之前考虑以上几点。

Focus on a Niche

聚焦适合自己的方向

In the freelance world, there are generalists and specialists. A generalist programmer typically takes on all programming assignments in a variety of industries. The downside to this is that you may be seen as a freelancer that is new to the subject, which results in a low or beginner rate.

在自由职业的世界里,有通才和专家。多面手程序员通常承担各种行业的所有编程任务。缺点是,你可能被仅仅视为一个自由职业者,面对很多任务,都是新的主题,这导致一个较低的报酬。

On the contrary, a specialist is a computer programmer that has worked in a specific industry—like real estate—for five or more years, or one who is knowledgeable of a specific skill set or programming language, like PHP.

相反,专家是一名计算机程序员,曾在特定行业(如房地产)工作五年或更长时间,或者熟悉特定技能或编程语言的人,如PHP。

The advantage of being a specialist is your rates can be set higher because of the value you can offer the client. It is up to you to focus on skills and talents that potential companies desire in a freelance developer and for you to perform at your best. The more you make companies happy, the more likely they will refer you to similar businesses.
 
成为一名专家的优势在于,你可以为客户提供更高的价值,从而提高费率。这取决于你专注于潜在公司对自由开发人员所期望的技能和才能,以及你的最佳表现。你让公司越高兴,他们就越有可能把你推荐给类似的公司。
 

To help you take advantage of jobs available in the market, here is a list of common programmer jobs to find on freelance websites:

为了帮助您利用市场上可用的工作,这里有一个常见的程序员工作列表,可以在自由网站上找到:

  • Develop mobile apps.
  • Design Oracle APEX-based application.
  • Code WordPress and PHP.
  • Optimize e-commerce websites.
  • Develop bot for automation.
  • Solve CSS, JS, and MySQL issues.
  • 开发移动应用。
  • 设计基于Oracle APEX的应用程序。
  • 代码WordPress和PHP。
  • 优化电子商务网站。
  • 为自动化开发机器人。
  • 解决CSS,JS和MySQL问题。

After you figure out what services to offer, the next step is to thoroughly understand the demographics of your target market. While these jobs could be tackled by either generalists or specialists, it’s better to be a specialist.

在确定要提供的服务后,下一步是彻底了解目标市场的人口统计数据。虽然这些工作可以由通才或专家解决,但最好还是专家。

Know Your Target Audience

了解目标受众

The top software programming freelancers know exactly what services their target audience wants. To be a successful freelancer, you’ll need to start with understanding the demographics of your ideal audience, which includes gender, age, job title, location, and industry.

顶级软件编程自由职业者确切地知道他们的目标受众想要的服务。要成为一名成功的自由职业者,您需要首先了解理想受众的人口统计数据,包括性别,年龄,职位,地点和行业。

For example, a female freelance programmer inspired by the Women Who Code organization can recruit girls and women into STEM jobs. The target audience could be female, ages 18–32, beginner and novice programmers, located within her city or state, and looking to get into the tech industry. Once this information is confirmed, the products and services you provide can be tailored to what the average consumer wants.

例如,一个受Women Who组织启发的自由职业女性程序员可以招募女孩和女性从事STEM工作。目标受众可以是女性,年龄18-32岁,初级和初级程序员,位于所在城市或州内,希望进入科技行业。一旦这些信息得到确认,您提供的产品和服务就可以根据普通消费者的需求进行定制。

Here is a list of ways this information can help:

以下是此信息可以提供帮助的方式列表:

  • Developing marketing content that will connect with the audience based on their values.开发营销内容,根据受众的价值观与他们建立联系。
  • Designing products that will fix a client’s problems.设计能够解决客户问题的产品。
  • Communicating with your target audience based on the social platforms or methods of communication that they use.根据他们使用的社交平台或通信方式与目标受众进行通信。

The key idea is to connect your audience with your services with the help of email blasts, e-newsletters, social media, blogging, YouTube, or being a presenter at a local event.

关键的想法是通过电子邮件爆炸,电子新闻通讯,社交媒体,博客,YouTube或在本地活动中担任主持人,将您的受众与您的服务联系起来。

Personalize Your Brand

个性化您的品牌

Successful freelance programmers understand that people do business with entrepreneurs that they admire or like. It means the freelancer sets a standard of customer service with a marketable personality—the interpersonal skills to work successfully with people of all diverse backgrounds.

成功的自由程序员明白,人们与他们钦佩或喜欢的企业家做生意。这意味着自由职业者要树立一种具有市场价值的客户服务标准,即与不同背景的人成功共事的人际交往技巧。

Personal branding consists of sharing some of your life on social media such as Instagram, posting photos of you working on projects or sharing the highlights of a business trip. It can include starting a YouTube channel of best practices on how to effectively debug or write programs or other software.

个人品牌包括在Instagram等社交媒体上分享您的一些生活,发布您在项目上工作的照片或分享商务旅行的亮点。它可以包括启动关于如何有效调试或编写程序或其他软件的YouTube最佳实践渠道。

It is an opportunity to show customers, potential clients, and followers a day-in-the-life of a freelance programmer. It will increase people’s confidence in reaching out to you for a paid project, while also making you more relatable to your target market as you create a rapport with them.

这是一个自由程序员向客户,潜在客户和关注者展示的机会。它会增加人们与您联系付费项目的信心,同时也会让您在与他们建立融洽关系时更加贴近您的目标市场

An example of a successful programmer is Saron Yitbare, the founder of CodeNewbie. On social media, she shares moments of writing blog posts, video footage of her public speaking, and Tweets of her audience’s feedback.
成功的程序员的一个例子是CodeNewbie的创始人Saron Yitbare。在社交媒体上,她分享撰写博客文章的时刻,她公开演讲的视频片段以及她的观众反馈的推文。

Build New Clientele

建立新的客户

As a programmer attempting to freelance for the first time, you may be wondering where to get your initial business. How do you start building a portfolio to attract more desirable clients? You can certainly pull from friends or contacts in the industry, but you’ll want to guarantee your job, and that’s where freelance websites come in.

作为第一次尝试自由职业者的程序员,您可能想知道从哪里获得您的初始业务。您如何开始构建投资组合以吸引更多理想的客户?你当然可以从业内的朋友或联系人处获取,但你需要保证你的工作,这就是自由网站的用武之地。

The benefit of using freelance websites is the site acts as a mediator between you and the client concerning disputes, payment, and scope of work. If you work alone without a mediator site, it opens the door for not being paid for work and other common issues. Here are a few ways to find clients conveniently:

使用自由职业网站的好处是,该网站在你和客户之间就争议、付款和工作范围充当调解人。如果您独自工作,没有一个中介站点,有可能会发生客户不支付费用或者其他一些共性问题。以下是一些方便找到客户的方法:

  • Freelance websites: Freelancemyway, Freelancer, and Hubstaff.  自由网站: Freelancemyway,Freelancer和Hubstaff。
  • Professional website: Your personal website equipped with keywords (SEO) so people in your area can find you.专业网站:您的个人网站配有关键字(SEO),以便您所在地区的人可以找到您。

It is essential to balance your relationship with potential clients. Remember to be transparent by stating your schedule to set the expectation of the number of assignments you can realistically complete.

平衡与潜在客户的关系至关重要。通过陈述您的日程安排来设置您可以实际完成的分配数量的期望,请记住保持透明。

Set Your Own Standards

设定自己的标准

When first starting out, it can be enticing to accept any job that arrives in your inbox. It can include a company that cannot provide a scope of work, a client who shows a lack of respect, or a proposal written unprofessionally. I recommend setting standards by growing a portfolio.

首次启动时,接受任何到达收件箱的工作都很诱人。它可以包括一个不能提供工作范围的公司,一个表现出缺乏尊重的客户,或者一个不专业的书面提案。我建议通过增加投资组合来设定标准。

Here is a list of ways to start setting standards for a freelance business:

  • Set an hourly or per-project rate by setting a pay range to earn what you deserve. (The next section will go into more detail.)
  • Select a niche to gain a reputation for a specific skill set.
  • Avoid working on projects you are unfamiliar with to prevent unsatisfactory work. (If you don’t know Python, don’t accept a job requiring you to fix a Python coding error or make the mistake of thinking you can learn as you go.)
  • 通过设置薪资范围来设定每小时或每个项目的费率,以获得您应得的。(下一节将详细介绍。)
  • 选择一个小众领域以获得特定技能组的声誉。
  • 避免在您不熟悉的项目上工作,以防止工作不满意。(如果您不了解Python,请不要接受要求您修复Python编码错误的工作,或者错误地认为您可以随时学习。)

Once a standard of excellence is set, you will have the advantage to pick and choose assignments. A good way to find out the standard rate for a professional in your area is to contact several freelance programmers for a range of rates.

一旦设定了卓越标准,您就可以选择任务。找出您所在地区专业人员的标准费率的好方法是联系几位自由程序员,获取一系列费率。

Set Your Rates and Stick to Them

设定你的价格并坚持他们

A new freelance developer can feel obligated to accept all customers by lowering his hourly or per-project rate for assignments. I strongly recommend finding out the standard rate for programmers in your geographic location to avoid underselling your skills.

新的自由开发人员可以通过降低每小时或每个项目的分配率来接受所有客户。我强烈建议您在地理位置找出程序员的标准费率,以避免低估您的技能。

A freelance programmer earns between $28–$200 per hour. It is a good idea to add a second skill set to increase your income. Here are a few factors that influence setting rates:

一名自由程序员每小时收入在28美元至200美元之间。添加第二个技能以增加收入是个好主意。以下是影响设定率的几个因素:

  • Experience and portfolio: Let’s face it: Clients typically pay based on a freelancer’s years of experience, quality of their portfolio, and their connections to reputable brands.经验和投资组合:让我们面对现实:客户通常根据自由职业者多年的经验,投资组合的质量以及与知名品牌的关系来支付费用。
  • In-demand services: If you can position yourself as an in-demand programmer, it increases a company’s desire to pay higher rates.如果您可以将自己定位为需求型程序员,则会增加公司支付更高费率的愿望。
  • Negotiation skills: A new freelancer with confidence in negotiation can earn a higher rate if the arrangement creates a win-win situation.如果安排创造双赢局面,那么对谈判充满信心的新自由职业者可以获得更高的利率。

Programmers can further improve their demand and skill sets by putting time and effort into self-educating, attending a post-secondary institution, or registering for an online course program.

程序员可以通过花时间和精力进行自学,进入高等教育机构或注册在线课程来进一步提高他们的需求和技能。

Take It Offline

注重线下

Social media, a professional website, and online marketing are essential. However, it is the offline experiences that help a business to expand. Offline activities that can help expand your freelance software programmer business include:

社交媒体,专业网站和在线营销至关重要。然而,正是线下体验帮助企业扩展。有助于扩展自由软件程序员业务的线下活动包括:

  • Hosting business meetups to connect with entrepreneurs that may need your services.
  • Attending computer programmer seminars to network with other programmers.
  • Leasing a studio space or co-work space to meet potential employees (i.e., writers or photographers) to expand your business.
  • 举办商务聚会,与可能需要您服务的企业家联系。
  • 参加计算机程序员研讨会,与其他程序员联网。
  • 租赁工作室空间或共同工作空间,以满足潜在的员工(即作家或摄影师)扩展您的业务。

Take your business offline to grow the business via word of mouth in the community. In the meantime, stay active on LinkedIn, attend networking functions, or advertise your business online to ensure your content and business remain current as you reach more potential customers in your area.

让您的业务离线,通过社区口口相传发展业务。与此同时,在LinkedIn上保持活跃,参加网络功能或在线宣传您的业务,以确保您的内容和业务保持最新状态,因为您可以覆盖您所在地区的更多潜在客户。

Taking the Leap Into Freelancing

迈向自由职业者

A freelance business requires work that includes a daily schedule of marketing, social media management, administrative tasks, invoicing, meeting clients in person, and delivering high-quality work. Most freelance programmers can set their own hours, pick or choose clients, work directly with executives, and build a connection with other programmers in the comfort of their own homes.

自由职业者需要的工作包括每日营销时间表,社交媒体管理,任务管理,发票,亲自会见客户以及提供高质量的工作。大多数自由职业程序员可以设置自己的工作时间,挑选或选择客户,直接与高管合作,并在舒适的家中与其他程序员建立联系。

As a freelancer myself, I recommend you pursue this opportunity if your passion for the work is at a high level. Why is this important? If passion does not exist, rejection or other challenges can deter a person from continuing to seek freelance opportunities.

作为一名自由职业者,如果您对工作的热情高涨,我建议您抓住这个机会。为什么这很重要?如果激情不存在,拒绝或其他挑战可能会阻止一个人继续寻求自由职业者的机会。

It’s not the easiest path, but for programmers who want to pursue more creative projects and be their own boss, it may be the only path—one that is beyond rewarding to those who are dedicated enough to put in the effort.
 
这不是最简单的方法,但对于那些想要追求更多创意项目并成为他们自己的老板的程序员来说,这可能是唯一的途径 - 对那些专注于投入努力的人来说,这是唯一的回报。
 
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