血液检验初创企业尝试爬出伊丽莎白·霍姆斯的阴影

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概要:滴血成金,伊丽莎白·霍姆斯的骗局被揭穿后,她留给整个行业的遗产是什么?

Blood-Test Startups Try to Crawl Out From the Shadow of Elizabeth Holmes

血液检验初创企业尝试爬出伊丽莎白·霍姆斯的阴影

 

The ghost of Theranos looms over the biotech industry, but entrepreneurs are working to bring less-audacious versions of Holmes’s vision to life

血液检测公司Theranos阴魂不散笼罩着生物科技行业,但企业家们正在努力用不那么激进的方式实现霍姆斯的远见。

As Daniel Levner tells it, the “Theranos effect” came in three distinct waves. First, he says, when the company was at its peak, many investors wouldn’t bother funding other blood-testing startups, because how could anyone compete with the youngest, female, self-made billionaire? Then, as news broke that the technology might not work as advertised, investors began to wince at any sight of blood businesses. Finally, when a seminal book on the company’s spiral to dissolution hit stores last year, it became clear that the problems were unique to Theranos, says Levner, who co-founded a blood-test startup. The account described Elizabeth Holmes as a zealot chasing a dream without the science or ethics to carry her there.

正如Daniel Levner所说,“Theranos效应”出现在三波不同的热潮里。首先,他说,当这家公司达到顶峰时,许多投资者不愿意再为其他血液测试初创公司提供资金了,因为有谁还能与最年轻,女性,白手起家的亿万富翁竞争?然后,由于有消息称该技术可能无法像宣传的那样发挥作用,投资者开始对任何血液测试业务退避三舍。最后,当去年那本影响深远的,有关这家公司的阴谋书出来之后,关于这家公司的很多热点和疑团也被消解掉了,人们开始明白,很明显这是Theranos这家公司独有的问题,而不是整个行业不行,Levner说。他是一家血液测试初创公司的联合创始人。该帐户描述了伊丽莎白·霍姆斯是一个追逐梦想的狂热分子,但缺的是科学或道德规范。

Now, even as court proceedings, a popular podcast series, a much-anticipated movie starring Jennifer Lawrence in development and this week’s release of an HBO documentary keep interest in the story alive, the blood business is flowing again. Investors are buying in, and several venture-backed companies say they’re making real, provable progress toward more efficient or affordable blood tests.

现在,即便这件事情已经到了法庭诉讼阶段,受欢迎的播客系列,备受期待的詹妮弗·劳伦斯主演的电影以及本周发布的HBO纪录片仍然对这个故事保持兴趣,血液测试业务又开始流动。投资者开始买入,一些风险投资支持的公司表示,他们正朝着更有效,或负担得起的血液测试方面取得真正可靠的进展。

Although some entrepreneurs would prefer to never utter the name Theranos, they tend to accentuate ways their businesses are different. No one says they’re building an all-in-one machine that can fit on a desk and do hundreds of tests on a few drops of blood. Most say they’re working carefully to perfect a few tests to start, in cooperation with respected authorities.

虽然有些企业家宁愿永远不提Theranos的名字,但他们往往还是会强调他们业务与Theranos不同。没有人说他们正在建造一台可以装在桌子上的一体机,可以在几滴血上做几百次测试。大多数人说他们正在与一些正规的权威机构合作,谨慎地完善一些测试。

“It would be an audacious statement to say every test would work with a finger prick,” says Levner, co-founder of Sight Diagnostics Ltd. “Right now, we can do one test really well.” That was enough to secure $28 million in funding last month for a system that Levner says can recreate a blood sample as a digital file for a computer to analyze. A form of artificial intelligence then looks at a blood cell’s shape, size and other characteristics and delivers a result in a few minutes, compared with the hours or even days it takes for traditional tests, he says.

Sight Diagnostics Ltd.的联合创始人Levner说:“如果一滴血就可以满足所有的测试,这个吹的有点大”。“但现在,我们可以把一个测试做的非常好了。可以让投在血液样本数字文件重建、辅以计算机分析这个项目的2800万美元不至于打水漂。这是一种形式的人工智能,可以观察血细胞的形状,大小和其他特征,并在几分钟内得出结果,区别于传统测试所需的几个小时甚至几天。

Another company, Karius Inc., aims to accurately identify more than a thousand pathogens in order to rapidly diagnose diseases, but it requires a full, intravenous blood draw. Orphidia Inc. says it needs only drips of blood from a finger prick for its portable device to complete lab tests in as few as 20 minutes, but it supports just seven tests right now. Even Tyler Shultz, a former Theranos engineer who helped bring the company down by whistleblowing to Wall Street Journal reporter and Bad Blood author John Carreyrou, is back. He runs a company, Flux Biosciences, that plans to use blood, urine and saliva to measure biological markers to test fertility and dietary issues, among other things, according to its website.

另一家公司Karius Inc.旨在准确识别超过一千种病原体,以便快速诊断疾病,但它需要完整的静脉血液抽取;Orphidia Inc.表示,只需20分钟便可完成实验室测试,只需一次刺破手指用几滴血,即可完成实验室测试,但目前仅支持七项测试;甚至Tyler Shultz,就是这位前Theranos工程师,通过向华尔街日报记者和Bad Blood的作者John Carreyrou举报加速了公司的倒闭,现在又回来了。他经营着一家名为Flux Biosciences的公司,该公司计划使用血液,尿液和唾液来测量生物指标,以测试生育能力和饮食问题等。

Theranos hasn’t deterred Silicon Valley from its growing obsession with health care. Google, Intel Corp. and other industry giants, along with startups staffed by clusters of Ph.D.s, have fixed their gaze on the heavily regulated industry. But computer code hasn’t yet been able to solve the challenge of keeping human beings healthy. Biology just isn’t as hackable as a machine.

Theranos的倒掉,并没有阻止硅谷对医疗保健行业日益增长的痴迷。谷歌,英特尔和其他行业巨头,以及由博士集团组成的初创公司,已经把注意力集中在这个受到严格监管的行业上。但是计算机代码还没有能够解决保持人类健康问题的挑战。生物学可并不像计算机机器那样容易被攻克掉。

The “massive fraud” perpetuated by Holmes, as the U.S. securities regulator described it, left some patients with faulty diagnoses and potential health consequences. (Holmes settled with the Securities and Exchange Commission without admitting wrongdoing.) The good news is the Theranos bust should scare away future peddlers of snake oil, says Dylan Morris, a partner at Charles River Ventures. “Any time there’s a scam that gets uncovered, that’s bad for all the other people trying to run the same scam,” says Morris, who had his own blood-testing startup that shuttered after failing to find a viable business model. “The nuances of how hard it is to actually make and sell a medical device have been brought to the forefront, and I think that’s a good thing.”

正如美国证券监管机构所描述的那样,伊丽莎白·霍姆斯长期存在的“大规模欺诈”给一些患者带来了错误的诊断和潜在的健康风险。 (霍姆斯在没有承认不法行为的情况下,与美国证券交易委员会达成和解。)好消息是,Theranos半身像应该吓跑未来的蛇油小贩,Charles River Ventures的合伙人Dylan Morris说。Morris说:“任何时候都会发现一个被揭露的骗局,这对所有其他试图运行相同骗局的人来说都是不利的。”他自己的血液测试初创公司在未能找到可行的商业模式后关闭了。 “真正得去制造和销售医疗设备的难度已经被提升到了最前沿,我认为这是一件好事。”

Sight Diagnostics makes a machine about the size of a toaster that works with finger-prick samples. But its aim is modest. The startup offers two tests: malaria, which was its first offering, and a complete blood count, a frequently ordered test. The company stresses it’s doing things by the book. It says the technology was approved by regulators for sale throughout Europe and recently concluded clinical trials in the U.S. at Boston Children’s Hospital and Columbia University Irving Medical Center in New York, as it works toward Food and Drug Administration approval.

Sight Diagnostics设计的机器大小与烤面包机一样大,可以刺破手指采血样。但它的测试目标是适度的。该创业公司提供两项测试:疟疾,一次性测试;以及全血细胞计数,这是一项需要频繁多次的测试。该公司强调它们做事正规。该项技术获得监管机构批准在欧洲销售,最近在美国波士顿儿童医院和纽约哥伦比亚大学欧文医疗中心完成了临床试验,它目前还致力于通过食品和药物管理局的批准。

The OLO blood diagnostic machine from Sight Diagnostics. Photo: Sight Diagnostics
Sight Diagnostics的血液检测机器

Karius, meanwhile, says advances in computing and genomics make a new kind of disease-detection system possible. The company says it can identify pathogens found in traces of genetic material in blood and return results overnight. At $2,000, Karius is more expensive than some traditional tests that require pathogens to be cultured in a Petri dish, but founder Mickey Kertesz says it can save money and lives by drastically reducing the time patients must stay under hospital care as they wait for a diagnosis. Last month, the prestigious journal Nature Microbiology published a peer-reviewed validation study of Karius technology, a fact the company heralds with a banner at the top of its website.

与此同时,Karius表示计算和基因组学的进步使得一种新的疾病检测系统成为可能。该公司表示,它可以识别血液中痕量遗传物质中发现的病原体,并在一夜之间返回结果。售价2000美元,Karius比一些需要在培养皿中培养病原体的传统测试更昂贵,但创始人Mickey Kertesz表示,通过大幅减少患者在等待诊断时必须留在医院护理的时间,可以节省资金和生命。上个月,著名的“自然微生物学”期刊发表了一篇关于Karius技术的同行评审验证研究,该公司在其网站的顶部标榜了这一事实。

When problems at Theranos first emerged, Nature published an editorial that was widely discussed in the medical community. It argued that health care can be disrupted but that companies must test their inventions thoroughly and publish proof of their claims. The sentiment left an impact on the biotech business. “Theranos was just claiming to do everything at once. We have a long-term vision, but we’re going step by step,” says Aron Rachamim, CEO of Orphidia. “We need to teach ourselves to walk before we can run.”

当Theranos的问题首次出现时,Nature发表了一篇在医学界广泛讨论的社论。认为医疗保健可能会因此事件受到干扰,但公司必须彻底检验他们的发明,并公布产品证明文件。业界的这种情绪对生物技术业务产生了影响。 “Theranos声称要一次性做完所有的事情。我们有一个长远的愿景,但我们会一步一步走,“Orphidia首席执行官Aron Rachamim说。 “在我们能跑之前,我们会先学怎么走。“

Bloomberg
Mar 26

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